How to make Sourdough Bread

 

Being the oldest form of leavened bread, sourdough was already used at least in ancient Egypt. As many great recipes, it was probably first created accidentally when leaving out bread dough which made good microorganisms – wild yeast – develop inside of it. Those made the texture lighter and the taste better.

Before the commercial baker’s yeast was created, every bread was sourdough bread. Today, around 30-50% of the bread in Europe is still made out of sourdough.

The mixture out of wild yeast, lactic acid bacteria, flour and water is called a “starter.” The microbes inside the dough digest gluten, meaning that real sourdough is either low in gluten or even gluten-free. For our bread, we used the ancient Marc Aurelio wheat which is also lower in gluten than today’s types of wheat.

In the following video, you can see how we made our sourdough bread: 

 

Séraphine-Noëlle Reeg * studying Tourism and Sustainability at the University of Montpellier, France

ESC, un’esperienza interculturale: 16 momenti particolari

La vita è fatta di momenti: ed ecco gli “undici” momenti trascorsi da Cornelia durante il suo ESC volontariato relativo a “Green up your future”. 12 mesi (da marzo 2019 fino a febbraio 2020) nel ruolo di volontaria ESC con l’associazione Acarbio a Tramonti, in Costiera Amalfitana. 

Costiera amalfitana, Panorama

Ciao Cornelia, ci racconti cosa hai fatto durante questo anno trascorso come volontaria ESC? 

Ho letto e scritto in tre lingue; facilitato laboratori non formali in 2 lingue, fatto social media, lavorato all’aperto immersa nella natura, condiviso idee, conosciuto persone arrivate qui da tutto il mondo, ballato, cantato, parlato Italiano e napoletano, vissuto insieme a persone di più di 10 paesi diversi, sorriso, e mangiato, mangiato…

2. Che cosa ne pensi di questo programma di volontariato europeo?

Consiglio molto di farlo a chi è curioso di essere sorpreso; a chi è pronto a dare una mano, a chi è curioso di vivere in un modo diverso e di aprire la propria mente, e anche a chi non si spaventa degli imprevisti.

3. Cos’è il progetto “Green up your future”? 

Consiste nel vivere la sostenibilità in tanti modi diversi. 

4. E dell’associazione Acarbio? 

Acarbio ti “porta” nel cuore della Costiera amalfitana, con le sue tradizioni, la flora e la fauna, la biosfera, i terrazzamenti e l’agricoltura terrazzata, il patrimonio culturale, i prodotti tipici. E’ un’immersione totale e vero in questo territorio.

5. Cosa rappresenta per te la solidarietà?

E’ avere un contatto con persone diverse in momenti diversi; conoscersi in aspetti diversi (lavorativo o personale, momenti forti e anche deboli, ecc.); e aiutare chi ha bisogno.

6. E di Tramonti? 

Un piccolo borgo, protetto o staccato in un certo senso, dove puoi vedere e vivere ancora vecchie tradizioni, usi, mangiare piatti e verdure veramente tipici, che non puoi trovare altrove.

7. Una cosa importante che hai imparato sul livello professionale? 

Iniziare da una idea fino a farla diventare una cosa concreta; imparare metodi di lavoro (trovare, usare o creare “come fare…”).

8. Uno sbaglio e un successo durante questa tua esperienza? 

Abbandonare qualcosa di importante per paura o noia momentanea; osservare, analizzare, riprovare, migliorare.  Così come l’impazienza e la pazienza: con persone, con un progetto, ma anche con se stesso.

9. Una cosa che ti ha sorpreso?

L’importanza del cibo nella cultura locale: cosa mangiare, quali ingredienti usare, come cucinare e come preparare un piatto. A un pranzo tra amici o in famiglia, si può anche parlare per due ore su una ricetta.

10. Una cosa che ti ha fatto ridere? Una cosa che ti ha fatto piangere? 

Imparare il dialetto napoletano – il suono ad esempio di ‘s schiass’ ‘a sedj’ mi ha fatto ridere molto; o che esistono almeno 15 principi su come cucinare una pasta “semplice”. Ricordo durante un progetto giovanile: quando è finito, nonostante tutta la stanchezza, la pressione avuta, durante il momento di salutarsi con tutti i partecipanti, ho pianto. O quando c’erano notizie che arrivavano dall’Austria e non avevo con chi condividere questo interesse.

11. La cosa più bella? 

I terrazzamenti della Costiera amalfitana. Paesaggio culturale, creato e curato nell’arco di mille anni. Emozionalmente, relazioni umani, ridere insieme o difficoltà oltrepassate insieme ad altre persone.

12. Una cosa che più ti ha toccato?

Le cose più banali di ogni giorno che in fondo si assomigliano in tutti i paesi e che ti fanno sentire parte integrante del mondo.

Per esempio, da bambini a volte si faceva finta di dormire per essere portati in braccio dai genitori; i giovani che hanno dubbi su cosa fare nella vita (vita “standard” seguendo gli amici o i genitori, o seguire le proprie passioni ma non avendo sicurezza) dappertutto si fanno le stesse domanda; poi sulla politica: ci si può lamentare sempre e dappertutto; stesso con il meteo, ognuno in continuazione in tutto il mondo ha troppo freddo, caldo, fa troppa pioggia, troppo secco. E in queste cose non importa di dove sono le persone con cui parli; Inghilterra, Polonia, Libano, Bulgaria, Armenia, Ucraina, Romania, Turchia, Canada, Israele, Francia, Lithuania, Italia, Cina, Grecia. Alla base rimane un mondo.

13. Una cosa che hai imparato su di te? 

Sono una viennese più di quel che pensavo. 

14. Qual è il contributo che pensi hai potuto dare?

Energia e affetto in quello che ho fatto. Questo serve sempre.

15. Cosa ancora non sei riuscita a fare? 

Ci stanno ancora tante cose. Per esempio, parlare in napoletano, o far convincere della bontà della cucina austriaca e far capire che la “Sacher” non è il patrimonio culinario più importante dell’Austria. E poi imparare ancora il congiuntivo della lingua Italiana. 

16. Una cosa che terrai con te, ovunque tu andrai? 

Un approccio più aperto sulle opinioni e punti di vista meno rigidi. In tanto c’è sempre qualcosa di nuovo da imparare, e lo capisci solo se sei disposto ad allargare la tua mente. Ci sto ancora lavorando per migliorare 🙂 😀

 

Cornelia Kramsall * Environmental Management: Initiatives for sustainable development and youth.

“passionate about projects and ideas to enjoy life while greening the world – let’s keep spreading the word”

Vuoi fare volontariato all’estero? Ecco perché te lo consigliamo.

Cornelia viene da Vienna e ha trascorso 12 mesi (da marzo 2019 fino a febbraio 2020) come ESC volontaria presso l’associazione Acarbio a Tramonti, in Costiera Amalfitana.

  • Cosa è l’ESC?

European Solidarity Corps, il Corpo Europeo di Solidarietà. Il programma del volontariato nell‘ambito Europeo e internazionale dell’ Unione Europea. In pratica, il programma per andare all’estero per fare un periodo di volontariato. 

  • Cosa si può fare con questo programma?

Ci sono diversi tipi di esperienze: quelle più comuni come il volontariato al breve termine in gruppi (da 10-40 persone), il volontariato individuale fino a 12 mesi (quello che ho fatto io). Ma ci sono anche progetti meno conosciuti: per esempio progetti di solidarietà che si possono realizzare nel proprio paese. Questi sono quelli che l’associazione Acarbio vuole anche diffondere in Costiera amalfitana: perché sono grandi opportunità per i giovani del posto di realizzare le proprie idee.

  • In cosa esiste? C’è un supporto economico? 

I costi di vitto e alloggio sono coperte dal programma, insieme con un pocket money, e una assicurazione sanitaria. Per quanto riguarda le attività: queste dipendono dal progetto in cui partecipi, possono ad esempio essere attività di volontariato nell’ambito ambientale. Poi c’è il supporto di un’organizzazione d’invio: il tutoring e mentoring del progetto in cui partecipi, e ci sono eventi dell’agenzia nazionale. 

  • Perché consigli di farlo? 

Io l’ho fatto – e raccomando di farlo – per conoscere meglio piccole realtà (piccole associazioni e piccoli borghi). E’ qui che puoi vedere e vivere approcci nuovi per te,  dove sarai sorpreso, dove puoi realmente contribuire in qualcosa, dove puoi realizzare un’idea tua, e dove succede il vero scambio culturale. Poi è anche un’opportunità per vedere un mondo che prima non conoscevi, vedere realtà diverse, prendere ispirazione, contribuire alla società e alla solidarietà. 

  • Cosa hai fatto e visto in quest’anno?

In numeri: ho conosciuto persone di più di 20 paesi; insegnato in 2 lingue, parlato in 4, sono stata coinvolta nella crescita di più di 5 iniziative a livello locale; fatto workshop sull’ educazione non formale con più di 60 ragazzi del posto; ho speso più di 200 ore in progetti giovanili; conosciuto più di 10 piante o animali tipici e in particolare da proteggere e più di 20 prodotti locali; ho trascorso 4 volte una notte in montagna, e combattuto così la mia fobia della montagna; mangiato oltre 50 piatti tipici diversi; più di 52 Pizze tipiche e 365 volte pasta. 

Cornelia Kramsall * Environmental Management: Initiatives for sustainable development and youth.

“passionate about projects and ideas to enjoy life while greening the world – let’s keep spreading the word”

Isabel – agriculture, culture of our environment

During all  my life I felt the need to help to preserve the nature and the environment, because I felt afraid about climate change, food security and water pollution, so one day I asked myself, how can I help?, What I can do?

For this reason I decided to study Agroforestry Engineering and really was the correct decision. Through my study and my professional experience I learned about the conservation of the soils and the sustainable production, it means, promote the efficient use of resources involving trees, crops and animals, but the sustainable agriculture goes beyond, through it we can help improve the economic, social and living conditions of thousands of people, especially those families that are living in very remote places, in extreme environmental conditions (such as drought, floods) and families with economic difficulties and extreme poverty.

To promote sustainable production, the most important point is to understand that we can change the traditional methods for sustainable methods and we can use the products that we have in own houses and farms;  to continue,  I will explain some of the methods that have been used internationally and have given good results.

EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS (EM)

The Effective Microorganisms (EM) are a mixture of Lactic acid bacteria – milk (Lactobacillus spp), Yeast (Saccharomycetes spp.), Phototrophic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas spp.) EM was developed at the University of the Ryukyus – Okinawa (Japan) in the early 1980´s by professor of Horticultura, Professor Dr Teruo Higa.

The EM can be use on diferents scenarios, but specially in the agricultura the EM has the next functions:

  • EM promotes germination, growth, flowering, fruiting and ripening in crop plants.
  • EM improves the photosynthetic capacity of plants.
  • EM increases the efficacy of organic matter as fertilisers.
  • EM develops resistance of plants to pests and diseases.
  • EM improve the physical, chemical and biological environments of the soil.

We can do Effective Microorganisms, only we need the next materials for 20 litres of EM :

  • 20 liters of water
  • 1 Liter of milk
  • 2 Liters of  molasses cane or suggar
  • 100 grams of yeast
  • 1 handful of forest land
  • 1 kg of rice

Preparation:

  1. We must have a container (no red no yellow) with capacity to store 20 liters.
  2. We dissolve molasses or sugar with milk and water.
  3. We dissolve the yeast with the previous mixture.
  4. Then we wrap the handful of soil in a porous cloth and put it inside the mixture as if it were a tea bag.
  5. We cover the mixture with a porous cloth; This cloth will perform two functions, the first will permit the gas exchange during the fermentation process and the second function is to
  6. prevent the entry of animals and garbage that could damage the mixture.
  7. Wait during 10 – 15 days

Note: We cover the mixture with a porous cloth; This fabric will perform two functions, the first will be gas exchange during the fermentation process and the second function is to prevent the entry of animals and garbage that could damage the mixture.

Application:

For agricultural use we use a dose of 2 liters of EM per 20 liters of water. It must be applied in the morning hours or in the afternoon hours (not at midday) (Kyan, y otros, 1999).

VERMICULTURE

Is the culture of earthworms. The aims is to continually increase the number of worms because these will help us to getting organic fertilizers. There are an estimated 1800 species of earthworm worldwide, even though the most common and easier for work is Eisenia fetida, as well known as “redworm” (Edwards & Lofty, 1977) (Munroe) (Diaz, 2002). The role of earthworms in organic matter descomposition it´s because they help to get the fragmentation of heavy waste as such wood, roots, some leaves among others. Besides, the worms are very important to keep the healty of the soil.

We can prepare our own small or large-scale vermiculture, depending on our needs and the size of our garden and our crops. Just follow the next indications:

If you have a small space in your home you can start with two plastic boxes. The first without holes as is shown in the figure 1 it will be for receive the liquid fertilizer and the second only with holes in the bottom. In the second box, we will put mixed kitchen waste as such: peels, skins of the domatotes, potatoes, fruits, egg shells, etc. with land of forest, if you have cow manure, sheep manure or horse manure will be great, you can use them. The wastes must be in little pieces for facility the worm`s job.

Depending on the amount of waste, we must add water, it is important that the vermiculture is always wet but not in excess. If  the process is going well, it shouldn`t emit bad smells.

Note: Only organic residues, no citrics, no plastic, no toilet garbage.

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

All our production systems (agriculture, livestock, forestry) must be focused on sustainability, it means, we must preserve the natural resources for the next generations. Unfortunately we are spending our natural resources (soil, water, biodiversity) thinking that we have another planet for to supply our needs.

The Agroforestry Systems are a good alternative for protecting our natural sources, because we can combine in the same place  the next elements:

  • Woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc)
  • Agricultural crops (maiz, bean, potatoes, domatoes, etc)
  • Animals (animal breeding, livestock, hens, etc)

There are a lot of different forms for to implement Agroforestry systems in our farms, to be I will show some common arrangements.

1. Live Fences

It involves trees (fruits trees, forest trees)  and/or shrubs used to replace posts made of wood, cement ot other materials. They are planted in high densities ( it means, a lot of trees). They are planted using either one species or a variety of species. This second option it´is recommended.

The importance with this arrangement is that we will stop the deforestation caused by cutting down trees to establish traditional fences besides we can connect forest fragments, in the future they can became biological corridors. In the picture 2 we can see the establishment  of Anadenanthera  peregrina (Yopo) in this case for a silvopastoril  system (animals and trees).

We need select the trees and shrubs according to the soil and environment conditions, it´s better if we using native species, but sometimes it’s necessary to use exotic species.

During my masters studies in Turkey in Forestry Engineering, I have participated in reforestation projects, especially in hillside areas and that have constant problems of landslides.

Figure 2: Anadenanthera peregrina (Yopo) using by live fences in the department of Meta in Colombia

2. Riparian Corridors

Riparian corridors are lines of trees or vegetation that protect river courses or other water courses. The contribution of riparian corridors to farms and the region can be seen in the reduction of erosion. This model is more ecological than productive, for that reason native and adapted species are very important. In the figure 3 we can see a model of riparian system.

3. Orchard Management – Horticulture

The orchard is also known like garden family, usually it isn´t a big place in which we can mixed fruits, vegetables, fruiting trees, aromatic species;  with this option we can produce our own food and in this way we consume fresh, good quality products and take care of the family economy.

During my experience with ACARBIO I learned the importance of preserving ancestral seeds, such as the variety of Re Umberto tomatoes, I have also experienced the satisfaction of cutting vegetables from the garden and putting it on our table.

Why are orchards so important?

Food is one of the most important aspects in our lives, with our chaotic and accelerated lifestyles we forget the importance of feeding ourselves well, so we choose to consume pre-cooked, frozen foods and many of the fruits and vegetables that we find in stores every time they are more expensive, they are packed in platicos and in the majority of times they are contaminated by products such as chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, among others.

If we consume organic foods that have been produced by local farmers we are supporting families that are committed to a more inclusive economy and at the same time we are taking care of our health and heritage. At the same time we would be motivating young people to return to work in the rural sector and see in the field a sustainable business option. To start working in our garden we must take into account:

  • Select the species according to the weather or the season (winter, summer, autumn and spring).
  • Locate the garden near some source of water, have an irrigation system (the drip irrigation system is easier in these orchards).
  • Use organic fertilizer.
  • To use different species in each harvest, that is, not to use the same site to plant the same species, because this can cause problems of pests and diseases in our garden.
  • It is also possible to use aromatic species from the area, in the case of southern Italy you can use: Basilico, Rosmarino, Salvia, Origano, Mentuccia, among others.

In the picture 3 we can see the work in the ACARBIO´s orchards, with this project ACARBIO is demonstrating its commitment to caring for the environment and preserving the native species of the area.

Thanks to experiences like these, many young people are motivated to offer our work and knowledge to promote a better world.

Figure 3: Terraces on the Amalfi Coast

 

– By Johana Isabel Perez Perez, student of agriculture

ESC – volunteering with the European Solidarity Corps at Acarbio

Do you want to get international experience? Get active for the society or the environment? Travel? Live with different people?

This is your answer!

With the ESC, the European Solidarity Corps, the Programme of the European Union, you can apply for an international volunteering experience.

WHAT OUR VOLUNTEERS SAY

Listen here to our volunteer Lydia talking about her experience.

 

Or read about what our volunteer Cornelia says about the ESC: https://www.blogcielomareterra.it/?p=1661 and her experience: https://www.blogcielomareterra.it/?p=1687

THE ESC

Find out more about the ESC here: europa.eu/youth/solidarity_en

The ACARBIO Diaries – Lydia (ESC volunteer)

As the temperature begins to drop (finally) and the long summer in Tramonti comes to an end, I find myself reflecting on my time here. It feels as though we have come a full circle, the season is now quieter, the masses of people have calmed and the sun dips behind the mountains sooner everyday.

When I arrived back in March it was cold, not the kind of cold that I expected from moving to Southern Italy, despite the warmings. We would wrap up warm with multiple layers, put the fire on in the office and always have hot herbal teas brewed ready to warm us up, it wasn’t bad at all.

It’s strange to look back on this time. So much has happened since then, it almost feels like a lifetime ago. When I arrived I was fresh with hopes and inspiration for the project to begin. In such a short space of time, this place has become my home and it feels like I have been here for much longer.

PROJECT LIFE

The season started with our first project “Make it Local” which took place on the beautiful town of Praiano along the Amalfi Coast. Since then we delivered 5 Youth Exchanges and Training Courses, A school summer camp, A beach-clean project and many other collaborations with the community.

The projects have been incredible. They have been hard work, long days, lots of chaos and time spent together. Between all of that were some beautiful moments of friendship, emotional support, learning, growing, experimenting and trying new things. I have had the pleasure of meeting so many wonderful people throughout this placement, some people that I am sure I will stay in touch with.

I didn’t really know what to expect from the work that I would be doing with ACARBIO, and I think that was the best way to be. I was mostly helping to facilitate the projects which meant many things from helping to prepare communications before hand, making presentations or running reflection sessions during and then follow up dissemination activities after. This was really great as I gained skills in so many different areas. One thing that I will cherish especially is teaching yoga and meditation to the participants out in the nature.

ACARBIO is a small organisation which means that everyone is welcomed into the family and we spend a lot of time together. It also means that we had to adapt to the situation as things changed, learn to be open minded and not stick too tightly to a plan. At the beginning this was tough, but I found myself becoming more and more relaxed by the end of my project and found being flexible coming easier for me.

The great thing about the projects is that they approach multiple different obstacles at one time. Most of them have a focus on a social or environmental cause that the organisation want to tackle.

TIMES IN TRAMONTI

Tramonti is a little gem of treasure buried in the mountains just away from the Amalfi Coast. It is a little buried pocked of gold that I secretly hope the tourists don’t discover (judging by the over crowding in the summer months of the other popular towns along the coast). There, you have the best of both worlds, mountain and sea. ACARBIO is situated in Polvica, the centre of Tramonti, where in a mere 15 minutes on the bus you can get to the beach of Maiori. The town itself is still fairly undiscovered by tourism and is mostly populated by locals, which gives a true authentic Italian experience. I found myself surrounded by Italian culture, people, food, weather and nature all in one.

From pizza parties with locals to pasta dinners at the town hall, ACARBIO is really the heart of the community. It was very touching to see how much of an impact the organisation has had on the region. In the office, we would often be visited by people passing by calling in for a “quick” coffee.

There’s not so much to do in Tramonti so you have to find ways to entertain yourself. I used to really enjoy going to a hike or a run in the mountains or, of course, down to the beach. There are many places to explore nearby with all of the towns along the coast then Salerno and Naples which you can arrive to in a couple of hours. In the summer months there are some small local festivals that take place centred around a seasonal food or wine. It is truly a magical place to live if you want to get close to nature and connect with the community. I have really enjoyed watching the sun dip below the mountains, seeing the stars at night, breathing fresh air every day and having such wonderful office views (they will be hard to beat).

I can’t leave Italy without talking about food…

What’s all the fuss about? I didn’t really get it at first. How important can it be? Is it really necessary to talk about food THIS much? Yes, yes it is.

It started off with a pizza party in the office. And from that moment I was captivated by the culture and (let’s face it) obsession with food that takes place in Italy. And with good reason too. The food is incredible. I thought that I would get tired of eating pasta almost everyday, but I was wrong. There are so many different types of pasta, dishes and ways to cook it that it can be exciting everyday.

We had the absolute pleasure of being cooked for everyday in the office by the wonderful Enzo. He was very creative and passionate about food (whatever you do, do not put tomato ketchup anywhere near a plate of pasta). The love and attention to detail that he would put into the cooking would be apparent through the flavours and taste of the food. My favourites were the veggie lasagne, pasta with beans and lemon and pepper spaghetti.

Speaking of food, during the summer months we got to grow our own vegetables in the garden at the office. In the spring months the seeds were planted and then cultivated during the summer. We grew; tomatoes, aubergine, courgette, pepper, rucola, lettuce, pumpkin and many more. I really enjoyed this experience although it was hard work (especially for Antonio who was out there every morning) but it was very rewarding. We would get the food from the garden and come up with creative dishes.

A final note about food. Tomatoes! I never knew they were such a big deal before. Let’s be honest the tomatoes in the UK just cannot compare. ACARBIO are also working with a start-up tomato sauce company which was established after cultivating an almost extinct type of tomato. After planting the tomatoes early in the year and a lot of hard work to maintain them, we finally got to enjoy the fruits and they were amazing!

I never thought that I would find so much pleasure in the process of growing, cooking and sharing food but now I finally understand why it is so important in Italian culture.

The end of the season…

As my time here comes to a close, I look back with fond memories on all of my experiences here. It has been a rollercoaster of events and I have learned so much about myself, others and this beautiful country.

This experience wouldn’t have been the same at all without the people that I shared it with. I had the honour of living with a group of wonderful women from all over the world; Lithuania, Colombia, Turkey, the UK and Austria. During the busy summer season, there were people coming in and out of ACARBIO to volunteer with us for a short time. I also got to connect with some of the participants of the projects who were from countries that I had never got to visit before. And of course, the lovely staff at ACARBIO who helped to support my project.

I am leaving with a full heart, slightly tighter clothes and a smile filled with memories of this beautiful place.

Pollution

Pollution is a process of making the environment dirty, unhealthy and unsuitable for humans and animals to live. It is caused due to the release of both tangible and intangible contaminants. These can be released naturally or by humans themselves accidentally or deliberately.

More than 200 million people are affected due to toxic pollutants. Due to pollution, there are few countries that have faced defected child birth and increase in mortality rate. Humans are regularly exposed to pollution when they inhale toxic air inside them.

Pollution can be controlled, if not eliminated. Efforts such as promoting green environment, proper disposal of waste, etc are simple steps that lead to great emphasis on maintaining the order of environment.

Preventive measures:

1)Plant trees/cultivate garden to curb polluted air and release more oxygen.

2)Switch off electricity-based equipments when not in use: lights, fans, machines, etc.

3)Make high use of natural energy than electric energy: dry the clothes naturally.

4)Use recyclable products, wherever possible.

5)Avoid plastic bags and use paper bags.

6)Avoid wastage of paper and use both the sides.

7)Restrict usage of hazardous chemicals.

8)Don’t overuse heaters and air conditioners.

9)Use public transport to reduce noise, air and light pollution.

10)Protect Mother Earth by not spilling oil, garbage, sewage water, etc at undesirable places.

11)Stop burning of crackers during marriages, Diwali, etc.

12)Don’t dispose off eatables, packaging in oceans, rivers, etc.

Pollution disturbs our ecosystem and the balance in the environment. By following the above simple points, we all can restrict pollution at our own level.

Each year millions of people die due to various diseases caused by pollution. The key to live a healthy life is to protect the environment from pollution.

The increase in the pollution level over the years by human and natural causes has caused severe damage to the earth’s ecosystem. Lifestyle, habitat, etc everything is being adversely affected. Though natural causes cannot be stopped, but human beings’ accidental and deliberate actions can easily be stopped which surely will result in the control of pollution generation.

Types of Pollution:

Major pollutions and their causes:

Land Pollution – Wastes collated at Earth’s surface, garbage on roads, industrial debris, pesticides, insecticides, etc. Unwanted wastes lying and being decomposed release harmful gases and lead to pollution.

Water Pollution – Wastes disposed of in rivers, oceans act as pollutant in water bodies. Raw sewage, oil spills, chemical refuse, etc create poisonous water and hence lead to water pollution.

Air pollution – Burning of fossil fuels, release of gases from vehicles release mono-oxide, carbon-di-oxide, industrial pollution, nuclear radiations etc lead to air pollution.

Noise Pollution – Vehicle horns, loud music, construction machinery sounds, and other human activities create noise. This affects humans and animals, their natural vegetation and create Noise Pollution.

Thermal Pollution – Manufacturing activities lead to rise in the temperature of water and land. This affects marine and plant life. Such activities lead to thermal pollution.

Ceren Yapici ,Master of Science Student in Environmental Engineering in Stuttgart University

Reference:
https://www.alphaenvironmental.com.au/7-different-types-pollution-explained/

Carla

Hola! My name is Carla, I have been an intern at ACARBIO for over 5 months, and would like to share my experience with you.

I am 26 year old Chilean, studying Sustainable Development at Uppsala University, in Sweden. After spending my first two semesters learning more about the topic, having interesting conversations about different environmental issues and taking walks around the forests covered in snow, I decided to look for an internship which could help me understand how sustainable practices can be applied in real life.

Searching through the website erasmusintern.org the word ‘sustainability’ the first post that appeared was the one of ACARBIO. The description of the internship seemed very interesting to me, as it involved working with the local community in different environmental projects, plus I could improve my Italian skills.

 

I arrived to Tramonti on July 1st, right on the start of the summer. I might say was not an easy to get there. A lot of curves and buses full of tourists, aiming to spend beautiful days in the Amalfi Coast.

I met the ACARBIO team the next day, surrounded by the beautiful mountains and preparing to have an Italian lunch. A thing you might need to know before coming here is that Italian food traditions are very important, and there will be a lot of conversations during lunch time revolting around this subject. If you LOVE food as much as I do, this is a perfect place for you. Enzo, the president of ACARBIO, is passionate about it too and enjoys cooking a lot, so most of the days he prepares lunch for the whole team. However, what he was not expecting is, that someone who is lactose and gluten intolerant will show up in the office (a.k.a me). After the first initial shock, Enzo became very interested in my eating habits, and he was also very nice and kind to let me know whenever he was cooking something that contained flour or cheese, so I could eat something else. During the internship, we discovered that I was able to eat certain things that contained gluten and ‘lievito’, for example the famous ‘pagnotto’, ‘pane biscotatto’ or pizza, and we were constantly doing experiments with food, though sometimes did not go well and I had to suffer stomach ache for some hours.

Aside from food, this internship made me realize the amazing nature we have in our planet, and how NGOs work. The office of ACARBIO is located in the Parco Regionale dei Monti Lattari, which a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The team aimed to support the candidature of this Amalfi Coast to become a Man and Biosphere Reserve, but due to political reasons and changes in the administration of the region, this has been slowed down. In the view of this, ACARBIO decided to take another route and be part of different youth projects related to sustainable development.

When I arrived in July, the Erasmus + project ‘The Green WE Make’ was about to start, which brought together 30 participants from different parts of Europe to be part of sustainability discussions and team work activities. Meanwhile Antonio, Enzo, Cornelia and Emilija were living in the local school of Minori, I was adapting slowly to my new life in the mountains, while preparing the project Make It Blue. This project was developed from the 31st of July until the 22nd of August in the beach town of Minori. My friend Emilija and I were team leaders for the 20 volunteers that came to spend their summer holidays in a different way.

This was the fourth edition of Make it Blue, which aims to raise awareness about the pollution on the beach, by doing environmental workshops with the kids, cleaning the beach every day and doing flash-mobs or artistic interventions with what has been found in the sand. This year, we found around 9.000 cigarette butts in only three weeks, as they contain plastic and can enter the Ocean with the wind or waves, it becomes a danger for the marine fauna because they can mistake them for food. Aside from this, I had the opportunity of living in the beach town of Minori, take a swim in the warm sea and enjoy the stunning view.

After this project, I went back to the office in Tramonti, spend time a lot of time in the garden, where everyday I picked up tomatoes, eggplants, basil, chilli-peppers, figs, pears or apples, and helped Antonio and Cornelia with the Erasmus+ project applications. This type of projects, offers a great chance for young people to engage in activities related to local traditions, sustainability and intercultural exchange, so I would recommend anyone to apply for them if possible.

As soon as the autumn came, the chestnuts and walnuts started to fall, and the Re Fiascone tomato sauce production started! If you have not heard about this type of tomato, a heads up: it is an ancient re-discovery and tastes amazing. With the help of work-awayers from Germany, USA, Argentina, Uruguay and Turkey, the jars were cleaned, labeled and put in boxes, to be sent across the Atlantic Ocean. I must say that after these weeks, I appreciate much more a home-made or artisanal product, as I realized all the work that is behind and the planification it requires to put all the ‘parts’ together.

During November, Cornelia and I had the task of preparing an activity for the elementary schools of Tramonti and Minori, in the context of the UNESCO Week of Education for Sustainable Development, which had as main topic “moving away from plastics: a path to be built”. We decided to do a presentation about plastic pollution in the Ocean and how it affects the ecosystem, especially on marine life (as you may guess I got inspired by the Make It Blue period), and a beach cleanup with the kids of Minori. It was an unforgettable experience; the children were very keen on picking up the trash and were able to realize how their own beach gets polluted by visitors or locals. After taking from the sand almost 5.000 elements, mainly composed by plastic, they were asking us “when is the next one?”, which gave me hope on the next generation.

By the end of this last project, I realized that my passion for protecting the Planet grew stronger, that with all the experiences lived in this internship, I re-connected to nature and specially the Ocean. This would not have been possible without the support of the ACARBIO team: Enzo, Antonio and Cornelia, who decided to go on a different path that most people take and work for a good cause, something that gives back to the community and the Earth, and I am very glad I could spend this time with them.

Another very important part of my time in Tramonti, was the intern’s life in the apartment in Pietre. Long summer afternoons playing music in the balcony, with Emilija, Lorenz and Tania, transformed into cozy movie nights and local wine parties with Jenny, Jarek and Cornelia. I am entirely grateful to have met such amazing people and been able to spend half a year with them.

If you are still wondering whether you should do this internship, I can assure it would be a life-changing experience and will help you understand many things, not only about NGOs, but also about yourself. Life is too short to live it always wondering what if… give it a shot, you will not regret it!

THE END / THE BEGINNING – Jarek’s experience

After bazillion different complications (Murphy’s law, I guess) I finally landed in Naples and got on the shuffle bus to Maiori. I’ll never forget this journey. Some bald guy was driving like crazy, hitting the horn every time he was passing the car that dared to be slower, of course everything while talking on the phone. In Neapolitan.“Well, it doesn’t get any more Italian than this, does it?” I said to a terrified, elderly lady from UK who was sitting next to me and kept repeating “Sweet Jesus” every time we would take a curve.

After an hour our bus arrived to the coast. I got off, looked at the view ahead of me and gagged. I sat on the bench and spent an hour listening to the sound of waves, admiring the sea that was just simply too blue to be real and observing people sunbathing on the beach. I have to admit, it was pretty good first impression. And, as I learned during the following weeks, I only got better.

I’ll come back to the views later, but for now, let’s talk work.

To be honest, after rather poor experiences with internships in Poland, I wasn’t  expecting anything more than copying documents from 9 to 5, fortunately I couldn’t be more wrong. First of all,  you need to know that ACARBIO is nothing like a typical office. There weren’t any gray walls or narrow boxes. We were working in a charming, cozy cottage adapted to the needs of the office, immersed in the greenery of Tramonti. I wasn’t copying documents, I actually learned a lot. I had a chance to improve my English and Italian by writing and translating articles for the website, I learned how to write ERASMUS+ projects and how does WordPress work, I was making maps, mapping terraces in Corsano, I helped rescue from abandonment an old shelter in the middle of the woods, I was planting salad and fennel seedlings (in the middle of November!) and I became an expert in labeling jars 😉 with “red gold” – an antique variety of tomato called Re Fiascone, that ACARBIO basically saved from extinction.

Since I’ve already mentioned tomatoes, the time has come to talk about food

Thanks to Enzo, the president of ACARBIO, I had an unique opportunity to try a real, home, Italian cuisine. From products cultivated in association’s garden, he was able to create truly exceptional dishes. I didn’t realize how good can taste pasta (which by the way Enzo made by himself couple of times) with pumpkin, or potatoes, or beans, or poppy seeds (SIC!). I got to eat probably the best risotto in my life, I learned how to prepare a proper coffee (not as simple as you might think), I tried deadly spicy peppers and had pleasure to observe the process of making  pane biscottato. Enzo taught me how to make pagnotto (google it), and believe me, it is worth to apply for this internship just to try his pagno-pizza. Oh, and I almost forgot about Chilean, Chinese and Austrian dinner! So much delicious food, so much stress when finally came the day of Polish evening…

Let’s go back to the views for a second.

Amalfi Coast is, without a doubt, one of the most beautiful places in the world. Full of small, picturesque cities “attached” to the mountains that literally fall into Tyrrhenian Sea. There are lemon orchards, olive groves and vineyards everywhere you look. I used to spend my days off on visiting absolute ‘musts” like Amalfi, Positano, Salerno or just wandering down alleys of less known, but equally beautiful Minori or Atrani. I absolutely fell in love with Ravello that towers over entire Coast and had so much fun during the trip to Capri that I took with ACARBIO team in September. While sitting on a chairlift that was taking us up to the summit of Mount Solaro I realized that I’m actually afraid of heights, but God oh God it was worth it. The views were just breathtaking.

Path of Gods

Let’s move on to the last part of my story, the most important one – people

I met a lot of  fascinating people whose open-mindedness, intelligence, passion, commitment for work and bravery were absolutely inspiring.

I’m gonna start with super nice and understanding locals who would always pick us up when we were trying to hitchhike.

Then workawayers: Claudia (probably the nicest person in the world) and Felix with whom I had pleasure to do the Path of the Gods, eat pizza in the garden in Ravello, chill on the beach in Maiori; Chemi, Mauro and Mona with whom we would go for a beer after work, Amber –three weeks that she spent in ACARBIO for me were probably the most entertaining of all.

The amazing staff of ACARBIO: Enzo – chef, Mcgyver, visionary with head full of ideas; Antonio -super intelligent, super funny and just a tiny bit nerdy (still in a good way) mystery guy who liked humming to hard rock songs. Talking nonsense with you during lunches was a pure pleasure! Cornelia – she was the one who glued ACARBIO together. Super-well-organized, always thinking three steps ahead, very passionate about her job, the only one who really understood polish way of consuming alcoholic beverages, which I consider a tremendous asset :); Valeria who preferred baby spiders and praying mantis over puppies and kittens. I guess that’s how passion for entomology manifests itself. I’m sure that we’ll read her first article in Nature in no time.

And finally, last but definitely not least, Carla and Jenny, my amazingly awesome flat mates. I’ll never forget our conversations in the kitchen, drinking wine from pizzeria, playing guitar and singing like crazy, watching movies and Chinese talent shows. We had so much fun that I could write an entire book about it. Can’t wait to meet you again!

All good things come to an end, and so did my adventure in ACARBIO. I came back home as a totally different man: more confident, calmer, wiser. Now I look at the world form a totally different perspective and I’m very excited to start this new chapter.

I had the time of my life. Thank you guys for making saying goodbye so hard!

Jarek Stawarz